Click Here for Drawing *


Docking Node: (1986) 5-port docking unit which can accommodate a Soyuz/Progress ferry or large module (axial face) and four science modules at radial positions.
Habitation Core: (1986) Along with docking unit, forms the initial Mir space station. Mir's primary living quarters including eating, sleeping and sanitary facilities.
Kvant 1: (1987) Mir's first additional module. Attached to rear of Habitation Core.
Kvant 2: (1989) Also known as Module D. Mir's first radial module.
Kristall: (1990) Also known as Module T. Mir's second radial module.
Spektr: (1995) Mir's third radial module.
Priroda: (1996) Mir's fourth, and final, radial module.

* NOTE: Mir drawing shows, front to back, propulsion unit with aft hatch (Kvant 1, not shown, is now docked at this port), Habitation Core with solar arrays, Docking Node (radial modules not shown), and Soyuz/Progress ferry.

The Soviet Union's Salyut space stations were succeeded by the new-generation Mir (Peace) space station, launched on 19-Feb-1986. Based on Salyut technology, the station had no fewer than six docking ports with improved crew accommodation. Much of the scientific equipment found in Salyut was absent. Cosmonauts now enjoyed separate compartments with table, chair and intercom. Life-support and ventilation systems were also improved and water was regenerated from atmospheric moisture.

At the front end was a spherical multiple docking unit with five docking ports, one axial for visiting spacecraft and four disposed radially at 90 degrees to each other for the future attachment of lab modules. At the rear of the station was another port for the docking of a fifth lab module and visiting spacecraft including unmanned cargo ferries.

Through the end of 1996 Mir had been visited by 24 manned Soyuz vehicles (plus one unmanned test flight), five unmanned lab modules, over 50 unmanned Progress cargo ferries, and four US Space Shuttle missions. Cosmonauts/astronauts had accumulated over 8,000 man-days aboard the space station, including 22 long stay missions.

Completion of Mir's assembly with the final module was acheived Apr-1996, after the core had long exceeded its planned life and the station had become a crucial platform for developing the International Space Station. The international partners on 7-Dec-1993 formally invited Russia to join the project. The intention is to integrate Russian core elements and fly modified Soyuz-TM craft as attached rescue vehicles and uprated Progress as ferries.


Designation: DOS 17KS-12701
Launched: 19-Feb-1986
Reentered: 23-Mar-2001
Principal uses: civilian space station
Orbit: typically 300-400 km, 51.6o
Crew size: 2-6 (two longstay typical)
Overall length: 13.13 m core, about 32.9 m for Soyuz/Mir/Kvant 1/Progress
Maximum diameter: 4.15 m
Habitable volume: 90 m3 for core
Total mass: 20,900 kg at launch; about 51,000 kg for Soyuz/Mir/Kvant 1/Progress; 72,800 kg with Kvant 2 added; 90,000 kg with Kristall added; up to 135,000 kg fully assembled with four radial modules
Propellant mass: four tanks offering 800 kg capacity; refuelled by Progress ferries
Main propulsion system
    engines: twin aft-mounted main engines, pressure-fed, gimbaled ±5o
    main engine thrust: 2 x 2.94 kN vac
    propellant: NTO/UDMH
    specific impulse: 305 vac
Attitude control thrusters: 32 x 137 N (two independent networks of 16 each)
Configuration: derived from Salyut 6/7 but the interior reworked as a habitation core vehicle and a 5-port docking unit replaced the previous single-port forward unit. The 2.2 m diameter node can accommodate a Soyuz-TM/Progress ferry or large module (axial face) and four science modules at radial positions. Each module docks first at the axial port drogue, inserts a Lyappa manipulator arm into one of two node sockets and swings around mechanically to its allocated site. A hatch leads from the docking unit into the first, 2.9 m diameter, habitation cylinder, which houses the primary station control facilities. This section's exterior provides a mounting for the thermal radiators and the three solar arrays. The habitation section flares to 4.15 m diameter towards the rear. At the aft, a hatch completes the 7.67 m long main cylindrical sections. Mir is capped by a 2.26 m long, 4.15 m diameter propulsion unit that provides access to aft-docked vehicles through a 1.67 m long, 2 m diameter tunnel
Power: 9 kW was generated by two Sun-following 38 m2 solar wings, spanning 29.7 m. A third array, delivered by Kvant 1 in Apr-1987, was erected to bring the total area to 98 m2 and supply to 10.1 kW. Voltage is 28.5 VDC. Twelve NiCd batteries provide storage. Additional arrays were delivered by Kvant 2 in 1989 and Kristall in 1990 bringing total array area, with Soyuz/Progress attached, to 250 m2. This would provide 28 kW, but shading/aging reduced it to 10 kW by mid-1992. Two 26.6 m2 wings plus two 38 m2 wings were delivered by Spektr in Jun-1995. STS-74 in Nov-1995 delivered two new solar arrays for attaching to Kvant 1 by 1996 EVAs
Life support: pressure maintained at 1,053-1,276 mbar, T 18-28oC, humidity 20-70%, O2/N2 mixture with max O2 content 40%, CO2 3%. Pressurized air delivered by Progress + Shuttle, CO2 scrubbed chemically by LiOH (now used as backup to molecular sieves on Kvant 1/2). 40 cartridges of O2-generating NaClO3 sodium chlorate retained as backup to Kvant 1/2's electrolytic system and used when >3 people aboard. Other modules provide additional life support. Salyut's systems were extensively reworked to accommodate crews of up to six. Long-stay cosmonauts remain aboard for typically 6-12 months, punctuated by 8-30 day visiting missions, and working 8.5 h days with weekends off. Up to 90 min are spent exercising daily. General equivalent protection inside Mir against radiation is typically 1 g/cm2. Background noise level is 75 dB
Avionics/control: ODCC on-board digital computer complex in conjunction with PINS platform-less inertial navigation system, offering 1-1/2o automatic/15 arcmin manual pointing accuracy. Eight computers have been referred to aboard Mir's core but the two primary units are a Soyuz-T Argon 16B derivative and the more powerful Salyut 5B computer that is employed now as the complex develops. Attitude/navigation information is provided by IR Earth horizon scanning sensors, solar sonsors, star sensors, Sun-presence sensors, automatic/manual star sextant, magnetometer, gyros and linear accelerometers. The Kvant 1/2 modules each carry six gyrodyne control moment gyros. Mir carries the S-band Kurs approach/docking system forward/aft, and the older Salyut Igla only at the rear. Kurs holds Mir stationary while the approaching vehicle conducts all the maneuvers. Unmanned vessels are docked under ground control. Mir carries an aft steerable 11-14 GHz antenna for continuous links through GEO telecom satellites

Launched: 31-Mar-1987, docked with Mir 9-Apr
Principal uses: manned/automatic astronomical observatory, expansion of Mir experimental facilities
Length: 5.8 m (total length with service module attached about 12 m)
Maximum diameter: 4.15 m
Mass: 20,600 kg at launch with service module, 11,050 kg docked to Mir (including 1,500 kg science payload and 2,600 kg Mir equipment such as solar panel)
Pressurized volume: about 40 m3
Propulsion: none initially, rendezvous/docking operations were performed ny the jettisoned service module. 700 kg self-contained thruster package was attached by 11-Sep-1992 EVA
Power: derived from Mir core. One Kristall solar wing was transferred by EVAs in May-1995. Two 6 kW wings, delivered by STS-74 Nov-1995, were attached, replacing the Kristall wing, by two EVAs in 1996
Life support systems: Kvant was hermetically sealed on the pad under sea level conditions. Mir maintains a pressure of 1,053-1,276 mbar, T 18-28oC, with max O2 content 40%, CO2 up to 3%. Kvant carries experimental unit for O2 production by electrolytic decompostion of water. 150 kg Vozdukh molecular sieve scrubs CO2
Avionics/control: derived from Mir (from service module before docking), but Kvant was first to incorporate six gyrodyne control moment gyros, providing 10 arcsec orientation during astronomical observations. Kvant also carries two IR Earth horizon sensors, two star sensors, star tracker, Sun sensors and optical sight to contribute to the station's control system; attitude control can be commanded manually from the module during observing sessions
Payload: the unpressurized instrument bay girdles the aft transfer compartment and accommodates the 800 kg 'Roentgen' battery of X-ray and UV telescopes developed in co-operation with the UK, Netherlands, W Germany and ESA. Kvant also houses the Svetlana automated electrophoresis plant in its pressurized volume for biotechnology investigations

Launched: 26-Nov-1989, docked with Mir's axial port 6-Dec, transfering to radial port 8-Dec
Principal uses: Mir extension unit, EVA activities
Length: 13.73 m
Maximum diameter: about 4.35 m
Mass: 18,500 kg
Pressurized volume: 61.3 m3
Propulsion: 2 x 3.9 kN NTO/UDMH main engines plus clusters of 400 N thrusters
Power: 6.9 kW provided by two 26.6 m2 solar arrays. NiCd batteries providing 360 Ah total capacity
Avionics/control: Kurs approach/docking system. Six external gyrodyne control moment gyros assist complex orientation and pointing. Includes DASA Jena-Optronik Astro CCD star attitude sensor
Payload: Icarus EVA unit, E German MKF-6MA 6-band Earth resources film camera, KAP-350 topographic camera, the 110 kg Czech ASPG-M platform carrying 115 kg of equipment, Sprut 5 charged particle spectrometer, Phaza AFM-2 telespectrometer, Spektr-256 spectrometer, 250 kg Volna 2 propellant tank demonstration, Inkubator 2, cosmic dust detectors

Launched: 31-May-1990, docked with Mir's axial port 10-Jun, transfering to radial port 11-Jun
Principal uses: materials processing units
Length: 13.73 m
Maxium diameter: about 4.35 m
Mass: 19,640 kg in orbit (including 7,000 kg cargo)
Pressurized volume: 60.8 m3
Propulsion: 2 x 3.9 kN NTO/UDMH main engines plus clusters of 400 N thrusters
Power: 5.5-8.4 kW provided by two solar arrays spanning about 36 m, totalling 72 m2. NiCd batteries providing 360 Ah total capacity
Avionics/control: Kurs approach/docking system
Payload: Krater 5, Optizon 1 and CSK-1/Kristallizator units for semi-conductor production, Zona 2/3 furnaces for other materials processing, Ainur electrophoresis unit, Glazar 2 UV telescope, Priroda 5 package of two KFA-1000 film cameras for Earth photography, Bulgarian Svet plant cultivation unit, Mariya magnetic spectrometer, Marina g telescope, Buket g spectrometer and Granat astrophysical spectrometer.

Launched: 20-May-1995, docked with Mir's axial port 1-Jun, transfering to radial port 2-Jun
Principal uses: remote sensing module, emphasising atmospheric studies
Length: 14.40 m
Maxium diameter: 4.10 m
Mass: 19,640 kg at launch (11,500 kg dry), including 1,260 kg cargo/consummables, 3,240 kg Mir equipment, 2,150 science equipment, 700 kg US equipment
Pressurized volume: 61.9 m3
Propulsion: 2 x 3.9 kN NTO/UDMH main engines plus clusters of 400 N thrusters
Power: 6.9 kW provided by two 26.6 m2 Kvant 2-type solar wings spanning 23.3 m plus two 38 m2 angled wings adding an estimated 9.3 kW. NiCd batteries providing 360 Ah total capacity
Avionics/control: Kurs approach/docking system
Payload: Balkan 1 lidar to measure upper cloud altitude, Phaza spectrometer for surface studies, Astra 2 atmospheric trace constituents, Taurus + Grif monitors Mir's induced X/g-ray background, KOMZA interstellar gas detector, 286 K binocular radiometer, VRIZ UV spectroradiometer, EFO 2 photometer, MIRAS Mir IR Atmosphere Spectrometer monitoring neutral atmospheric composition over at least 1 year

Launched: 23-Apr-1996, docked with Mir's axial port 26-Apr, transfering to radial port 27-Apr
Principal uses: remote sensing module
Length: about 13 m
Maxium diameter: about 4.35 m
Mass: 19,700 kg in orbit (including 2,000 kg remote sensing payload)
Pressurized volume: 66.2 m3
Propulsion: 2 x 3.9 kN NTO/UDMH main engines plus clusters of 400 N thrusters
Power: no solar arrays, battery power only
Avionics/control: Kurs approach/docking system
Payload: about 2,000 kg of remote sensing instrumentation, Ainur electrophoresis unit and Korund 1MP semiconductor unit. Remote sensing objectives include measurement of ocean temperatures to 0.5-1K, wind vectors to 1 m/s +20o, atmospheric T profile to 3-5K, sea wave height to 20 cm, atmospheric concentrations of pollutants and trace constituents, and mean cloud T to 1-2K

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