International Space Station

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The International Space Station's evolution, final configuration and Russia's involvement were largely settled in 1994. The Station's pressurized modules provide a shirt-sleeve environment for up to seven astronauts and scientists. NASA will provide the truss structure, two laboratory and habitation modules, and two interconnecting nodes. Japan will fly a lab/experiment platform. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Columbus laboratory has been gradually reduced because of financial constraints, but the contract was finally signed in April 1996. Canada's Mobile Servicing System will play a key role in assembly and servicing. Logistics modules will be delivered as required.

Boeing Defense & Space Group was named 17-Aug-1993 as prime contractor for the revised station. Boeing is responsible for delivering the full-up vehicle and for coordinating and integrating the US portion with international elements. It is responsible for the design, development, physical and analytical integration, test, delivery, and launch of the vehicle, in addition to one year of sustaining engineering following launch of each package, including spares. It also manages the subcontractors.

Assembly will require about 22 Space Shuttle and 11 Russian launches. Continuous occupation by a 3-man crew began in 2000 (reduced to 2 during grounding of Shuttle fleet), increased to a 6-man crew at assembly completion. ISS assembly delayed 2 1/2 years following loss of Shuttle Columbia and crew in 2003.


(Figures at Assembly Complete)

Principal uses: civilian space station
Cost: preliminary design (1985-87) $0.6 billion; station-related design/development $0.7 billion; development $8.9 billion; NASA estimate for assembly complete $17.4 billion; operations (2003-2012) $13.0 billion
Orbit: varies 352-389 km, 51.6o
Crew size: up to 7
Wingspan: 108.6 m
Length: 79.9 m
Habitable volume: ~1,200 m3
Total mass: 456,620 kg final, 289,470 kg to end-2008
Environment: 1 atm pressure

Canadian Mobile Servicing System: includes a 16.8 m robot arm with 113 t payload capability, as well as a mobile transporter, which can be positioned along the truss for robotic assembly and maintenance operations
Functional Cargo Block (FGB): includes the energy block, contingency fuel storage, propulsion, and multiple docking ports. The 19,300 kg element, built in Russia but purchased by the US, will be launched on a Proton vehicle
Russian Service Module: provides life support and utilities, thrusters, and habitation functions (toilet and hygiene facilities). The 21,000 kg element will also be launched on a Proton vehicle
Science Power Platform (SPP): will provide power (approximately 25 kW) and heat rejection for the Space Station's science and operations
Crew Transfer Vehicles (CTVs): include a modified Russian Soyuz TM capsule and another vehicle yet to be determined. The Soyuz CTV can normally accommodate a crew of three, or a crew of teo when considering the return of an ill or injured crewmember with room for medical equipment
Progress Cargo Vehicles: carry reboost propellant (up to 3,000 kg) to the Space Station about four times per year
Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV): is a transfer vehicle to carry reboost propellant and supplies to the Space Station. The European-developed ATV will be launched by Europe's Ariane 5
Six Laboratories: two US - a laboratory and a Centrifuge Accommondation Module (CAM); one ESA Columbus Orbital Facility (COF); one Japanese Experiment Module (JEM); and two Russian Research Modules
U.S., European and Japanese laboratories: together provide 33 International Standard Payload Racks; additional science space is available in the two Russian Reasearch Modules
Japan's JEM: has an exposed platform, or 'back porch', attached to it, with 10 mounting spaces for experiments, which provide direct contact with the space environment. The JEM also has a small robotic arm for payload operations on the exposed platform
U.S. Habitation Module: Contains the galley, toilet, shower, sleep stations, and medical facilites
Three Italian Mini Pressurized Laboratory Modules (MPLMs): carries all the pressurized cargo and payloads launched on the Space Shuttle. Each module is capable of delivering 16 International Standard Payload Racks
Two U.S. Nodes: Node 1 is for storage space only; Node 2 contains racks of equipment used to convert electrical power for use by the international partners. The nodes are also the structural building blocks that link the pressurized modules together
External Sites: four locations on the truss for mounting experiments intended for looking down at Earth and up into space or direct exposure to space
Power: 110 kW average (46 kW average for research, with Russian segment producing an additional 14 kW for research). There are four large US solar arrays; each array has four modules, each approximately 34 m long x 11.9 m wide. Each array generates approximately 23 kW. The arrays rotate to face the Sun, providing maximum power to the station


Flights completed to end-2008
Nov-1998 - Flight 1A/R - Russian - Functional Cargo Block (FGB)
Dec-1998 - Flight 2A - US Orbiter - Node 1; Pressurized Mating Adapters 1 & 2
May-1999 - Flight 2A.1 - US Orbiter - Spacehab Double Cargo Module
May-2000 - Flight 2A.2a - US Orbiter - Spacehab DM
Jul-2000 - Flight 1R - Russian - Service Module
Sep-2000 - Flight 2A.2b - US Orbiter - Spacehab DM
Oct-2000 - Flight 3A - US Orbiter - Integrated Truss Structure (ITS) Z1; PMA-3; Ku-band; Control Moment Gyros (CMGs)
Oct-2000 - Flight 2R - Russian - Soyuz; Expedition 1 crew
Nov-2000 - Flight 4A - US Orbiter - ITS P6
Feb-2001 - Flight 5A - US Orbiter - Laboratory module
Mar-2001 - Flight 5A.1 - US Orbiter - Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM), External Stowage Platform (ESP1)
Apr-2001 - Flight 6A - US Orbiter - MPLM; UHF antenna; Space Station Remote Manipulating System (SSRMS)
Jul-2001 - Flight 7A - US Orbiter - Joint Airlock; High Pressure Gas Assembly
Aug-2001 - Flight 7A.1 - US Orbiter - MPLM
Sep-2001 - Flight 4R - Russian - Docking Compartment 1
Dec-2001 - Flight UF-1 - US Orbiter - MPLM (ISPRs); PV Module batteries
Apr-2002 - Flight 8A - US Orbiter - ITS S0; Mobile Transporter (MT)
Jun-2002 - Flight UF-2 - US Orbiter - MPLM (ISPRs); Mobile Base System (MBS); Lab system
Oct-2002 - Flight 9A - US Orbiter - ITS S1; Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA Cart A)
Nov-2002 - Flight 11A - US Orbiter - ITS P1, CETA Cart B, Microelectromechanical Systems-based PicoSat Inspector (MEPSI) 1A & 1B
Jul-2005 - Flight LF-1 - US Orbiter - MPLM, ESP2
Jul-2006 - Flight ULF-1.1 - US Orbiter - MPLM
Sep-2006 - Flight 12A - US Orbiter - ITS P3/P4; MEPSI 2A & 2B
Dec-2006 - Flight 12A.1 - US Orbiter - ITS P5
Jun-2007 - Flight 13A - US Orbiter - ITS S3/S4; MEPSI 3A & 3B
Aug-2007 - Flight 13A.1 - US Orbiter - ITS S5; ESP3
Oct-2007 - Flight 10A - US Orbiter - Node 2; Power/Data Grapple Fixture (PDGF)
Feb-2008 - Flight 1E - US Orbiter - Columbus Orbital Facility (COF)
Mar-2008 - Flight 1J/A - US Orbiter - Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) ELM PS; Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM)
May-2008 - Flight 1J - US Orbiter - JEM Pressurized Module (PM); Remote Manipulator System (RMS)
Nov-2008 - Flight ULF-2 - US Orbiter - MPLM
Mar-2009 - Flight 15A - US Orbiter - ITS S6; PV Module
Jun-2009 - Flight 2J/A - US Orbiter - JEM Exposed Facility (EF); ELM ES; PV Module Batteries
Aug-2009 - Flight 17A - US Orbiter - MPLM; Node lab racks

Future Flights
2009? - Flight 5R - Russian - Mini Research Module 2 (MRM2)
2009? - Flight ULF-3 - US Orbiter - MPLM, ExPRESS Logistics Carrier (ELC1, ELC2)
2010? - Flight 20A - US Orbiter - Node 3; Cupola
2010? - Flight 19A - US Orbiter - MPLM, Lightweight Multipurpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC)
2010? - Flight ULF-4 - US Orbiter - MPLM, MRM1, Intergrated Cargo Carrier (ICC)
2010? - Flight ULF-5 - US Orbiter - MPLM, ELC4
2010? - Flight ULF-6 - US Orbiter - MPLM, ELC3, Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)
2011? - Flight 3R - Russian - Multipurpose Laboratory Module (MLM); European Robotic Arm (ERA)

NOTE: Additional Progress, Soyuz, H-II Transfer Vehicle and Automated Transfer Vehicle flight for crew transport, logistics and resupply are not listed.

Canceled Flights
Flight 3R - Russian - Universal Docking Module (UDM) - (payload replaced by MLM)
Flight 5R - Russian - Docking Compartment 2 (DC2) - (payload replaced by MRM 2)
Flight 8R - Russian - Research Module 1
Flight 9R - Russian - Docking & Stowage Module (DSM)
Flight 10R - Russian - Research Module 2
Flight 9A.1 - US Orbiter - SPP with four solar arrays
Flight 10A.1 - US Orbiter - Propulsion Module
Flight 14A - US Orbiter - Cupola, & Port Rails (on SLP); 4 SPP Solar Arrays
Flight 16A - US Orbiter - US Habitation Module
Flight 18A - US Orbiter - Crew Return Vehicle (CRV 1)
Flight UF-3 - US Orbiter - MPLM (ISPRs)
Flight UF-4 - US Orbiter - Express Pallet; ATA; SPDM (SLP)
Flight UF-4.1 - US Orbiter - Express Pallet
Flight UF-5 - US Orbiter - MPLM (ISPRs), Express Pallet
Flight UF-6 - US Orbiter - MPLM (ISPRs)
Flight UF-7 - US Orbiter - Centrifuge Accommodations Module (CAM)

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